The area that is currently the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina was once part of the Roman Empire. When the Roman Empire collapsed, the region eventually developed into the kingdom of Bosnia. In 1463, Bosnia was taken over by the Ottoman Turks.
The Turks ruled in Bosnia until the late 1800s when it became part of Austria-Hungary. In 1908, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia to become a part of their country. Some of the people in southern Bosnia did not want to be part of Austria-Hungary.
Soon WWI broke out. After the war Bosnia became part of Yugoslavia. Things did not get any better for the Bosnians. During WWII many Bosnians were killed and persecuted.
After WWII, Yugoslavia became a communist country. Josip Broz Tito was the original leader for many years. He was followed by Slobodan Milosevic in 1986. This was a terrible time for the country. The different ethnic groups within Yugoslavia began to war with each other. The Bosnians wanted their own country and declared their independence on April 5, 1992. They were recognized as a country by the United Nations a month later.
Today there are three main ethnic groups that make up Bosnia and Herzegovina. They are Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. There are also three major languages including Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian.